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Home » Hardware Components Of Laptop:Everything You Need To Know

Hardware Components Of Laptop:Everything You Need To Know

When it comes to laptops, a lot of time it is difficult to understand all its hardware components because, unlike desktops, a lot of stuff is packed in a compact space. Understanding the inside of a laptop could help one to make more efficient use of it, and even reduce dependency on the store to get minor issues repaired, last but not the least, it is always fun and intriguing to know the technicalities of a machine.

A laptop is a computer that can be carried around with ease, and therefore, it has to have all the major and essential parts of a computer. Talking about parts, there are two types – Internal & External. Needless to say, external parts are those which can be seen on the outside of a completely put-together laptop, such as the casing, the screws, the hinges, etc. But there is a lot more to a laptop than that.

The parts that are not seen on the outside play a major role in the functioning of the laptop and in this article, we would be talking about all the hardware components of the laptop that make your laptop function while being behind the casing.

When a laptop is unscrewed and opened at the back, the hardware components that can be found are listed below along with their functionalities.

Also, Read Everything you Need To Know About Laptop Warranties

Here is the list of internal hardware components of the laptop.

Motherboard-Most Important Hardware Component Of Laptop

It is a large printed circuit board and has all other hardware components plugged into it through connectors. Important devices such as the processor, RAM, various ports, CMOS battery, capacitors, PCH, RTC Crystal, etc. are all attached to it. To put it in short, the motherboard is the communication backbone connectivity point between all other components of the laptop.

Also Read: What Motherboard Slot Has Direct Access To The Northbridge?

Hard Disc Drive

It is a mechanical device with having disc and rotator. A hard disc drive, or simply a hard drive, is a storage device that is non-volatile, meaning that the stored data won’t be lost even if the laptop is shut down. In a hard drive, the data is stored magnetically which enables it to be retained even when the power is shut off.

It consists of a mechanical magnetic disc that rotates, and a read/write head. It is firmly fitted inside the laptop to prevent it from getting displaced and causing damage as it spins rapidly. Hard drives are being seen less these days because of better alternatives replacing them. They tend to get slow and affect the speed of laptops, but they are less expensive because of which their market hasn’t collapsed.

Solid State Drive (SSD)

SSD is a rectangular solid device. It is a non-volatile storage device that is used in comparatively new laptops. They are being used in place of mechanical Hard Disc Drives as they are far more efficient in terms of speed and performance. SSDs use a NAND flash-based memory chip which consumes less space, less time, and less energy since it doesn’t have mechanical moving parts. Despite being comparatively expensive, SSDs have managed to get a spike in consumption numbers because it offers a lot better performance than hard disc drives, this makes it worth the money.


As the name makes it obvious, the battery is the power supply unit of a laptop, enabling it to work when the direct power supply isn’t available. Laptop batteries typically use lithium-ion cells.

The time duration for which a battery can support a laptop depends on factors like processing, battery life, and optimization. Latest laptops offer good battery lives and since these batteries are rechargeable, they can be recharged once required. There are usually 3 batteries in a laptop- CMOS battery, Bridge battery, and the Main battery, they are discussed in brief in the latter part of this article.


Laptops mostly come with built-in speakers for us to have a convenient experience with sounds. Laptop speakers come in a range of qualities and configurations. They also enable us to use the microphone. The built-in speakers are most convenient and capable enough to support various needs of the user but in case a user needs improvisation, external speakers can be connected with the help of connectors.

CPU fan

The need for a cooling system in laptops cannot be undermined and a fan is one of the most important components of the laptop cooling system. As the machine works, its components get heated and it is important to regulate the temperature inside to prevent overheating and to keep things stable. A fan, along with the heat sync and pipes, drives cool external air into the laptop and drives out the hot air present inside. Cooling is a really important part of laptop functioning and a fan plays a major role in it.

Also Read: Monitors For Office Productivity-8 Best Options | PcRux

Optical drive

This laptop hardware component has been out of sight lately because it is no more used. The optical drive is used to let the laptop interact with discs such as CDs and DVDs. It is composed of a hardware casing and a laser that can read and write data from and on the rotating disc. Although laptops these days do not come with built-in optical discs, you can opt to attach an external optical drive to put it to use.


As you may have heard, a keyboard is a miniature computer in itself, and to justify this, the keyboard has its processor and circuits. Beneath the keys, is a grid of circuits called the key matrix. When a key is pressed, the respective circuit beneath it gets completed and a spark of current flows which in turn displays the result of the key pressed.

  • The Processor, which is the CPU or brain of the laptop is plugged into the motherboard of the laptop and is responsible for providing all the instructions and processing commands.
  • A PCH or Platform controller hub is a chipset on the motherboard. It succeeds the Intel Hub architecture which had the northbridge and southbridge. The PCH has the functions of both bridges along with a few more features such as cloaking, the system clock is now incorporated in the PCH.
  • RTC Crystal or Real-Time Clock is the device that is plugged into the motherboard and is responsible to update the date and time even when the laptop is off the power.
  • The CMOS battery is the battery that runs when the laptop is shut down. It provides just enough power for the laptop to be able to update the date and time provided by the RTC crystal continuously.
  • The bridge battery is the battery that comes to your rescue when you have to replace your laptop battery but don’t want it to shut down. The bridge battery provides enough power for the time you replace your laptop battery with a new one.
  • The main battery of your laptop, as the name suggests, is the main source of power and is fueling your machine as you read this right now.
  • A lot of laptops have a backlit keyboard that enables the user to see the keys even in darkness for a smoother experience. This is made possible with the help of an LED board cover.

Also Read: Different Types Of Computer Monitors-PcRux

If you found this article informative, make sure to check the other articles on our site to learn more about technology.

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